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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the technology that uses living organisms or substances obtained from living organisms to make product of value to man kind & to improve plants & animals for specific use is emerging as one of the challenging careers for graduates from science streams. The term biotechnology was coined during the late 1970s, when the advance in molecular and cell biology catalyzed new industrial ventures to exploit these advances for the benefit of humanbeing. Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary area in educational scene evolved from the integrated use of life sciences, chemical sciences and engineering sciences. Microbial Biotechnology, Plant Biotechnology and Animal Biotechnology based on the kind of biological agent involved are some of the branches of Biotechnology.

Genetic Engineering, the popular of branch of Biotechnology includes recombinant DNA technology, protoplast fusion, hybridoma technology, cell culture, issue culture, germplasm development, embryo transfer technology, enzyme and protein engineering,
Fermentation, biconversion and immobilization of cells and cellular products.

Biotechnology has immense potential & has so may commercial applications for use in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, health, chemical industry, food industry, pollution control and environment.

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Applications:

1]    India is a agricultural country, 70 % people of the country totally depends on agriculture, because of uneven climatic changes the farmers are the only person, who are suffering mostly. So genetic engineering, which has agricultural application is a path finder for farmers.

Agriculture Application of biotechnology in the field of agriculture, forestry and horticulture include development of engineered plants through genetic engineering, production of super seeds, food plants with enhanced nutritional value, development of resistance in plants against pests, herbicides, salt and draught, viral diseases, production of fuel and fodder crops, biological nitrogen fixation for food and cereal crops through transfer of nitrogen fixing genes, production of biofertilizers like Azolla and Azotobacter and Rizobium innoculants, evolving further efficient photosynthetic mechanisms, development of plant growth regulators and hormones, development of specific biocides for control of pests, insects and mosquitoes, plants that produce their own insecticides and herbicides, mass propagation of plants of commercial importance and genetically engineered microbes that will protect plants from freezing.

2]    Micropropagation through tissue culture has vast potential in the mass scale production of ornamentals and foliage plant species and also in the case of field crops. Pomegranate, banana, vegetable crops, cardamom, sugar cane and orchids have already been commercially produced using tissue culture in India. Tissue cultured bamboo, mustard, rice, oil plam, sandal wood, medicinal plants, eucalyptus, turmeric, cotton, papaya, custard, apple, teak, salvadora timber, ferns, rubber, coffee and forest trees are in evaluation and field testing stages.

3]    In nature only limited genetic variability is available for insect resistance and therefore the conventional breeding programmes have been only partially successful. However with the help of genetic engineering, it is possible to produce insect resistant transgenic plants that inhibit enzymes responsible for break down of protein.

4]    From the nutritional point of view, plant proteins suffers from aminoacid imbalances. By genetic engineering, it may be possible to correct the imbalance of aminoacid profiles in seed proteins.

4]    In the veterinary sector, biotechnological applications include utilization of hybridoma technology for animal health care.

5]    Embryo transfer technology offers scope for achieving faster multiplication of elite livestock and for devising methods for conservation of valuable germplasm. In conjunction with artificial insemination, it offers a powerful tool for increasing the population of a desired type of animal with improved production potential.

6]    An animal birth-control injection called "Talsur" has been developed by scientists for sterilization of male animals. It provides a cheap, fast and simple method with few side effects. The techniques will have an impact on efforts to reduce the population of
Low-grade genetic stock of little economic value.

7]    Medicine and Health Development of better and cheaper drugs, better vaccines for several diseases, better antifertility agents, hormone production through genetically engineered bacteria, immunodiagnostic kits, vaccines for cancer, prevention of genetically transmitted diseases, specially targeted drug delivery systems, gene probes and gene therapy are the probable applications of biotechnology.

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M.Sc. Programme In Biotechnology

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi a combined Entrance Examination for Admission for 2-year M.Sc Programme in Biotechnology for the following participating University namely;

1.    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
2.    Calcutta University, Kerala

3.    Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore
4.    Goa University, Goa
5.    G.B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Nainital)
6.    Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
7.    Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla
8.    University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
9.    Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
10.    M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda
11.    Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai
12.    Punjab University, Chandigarh
13.    Pondichery University, Pondicherry
14.    Poona University, Pune
15.    Punjabi University, Patiala
16.    Tezpur University, Tezpur (Assam)


Eligibility: Bachelor's degree under the 10+2+3 pattern of education in Physical Science, Biological Sciences, Pharmacy, Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Fishery Science or Bachelor's Degree in Engineering/ Technology or Medicine (MBBS) or B.D.S. with 55 % marks.


Scholarships: There is a provision of scholarships to students selected for admission to M.Sc Biotechnology Programme.

Anna University, Chennai; (Offered a Bioinsecticides, Industrial Enzymes, Bioconversion, Immunodiagnosis of filariasis, Monoclonal antibodies to cancer maker glycoconjugates etc.


Jadavpur University, Calcutta.

Immunology and Tissue Culture - for development of vaccine, isolation of bioactive compounds from animal cell culture and cell cybernetics.

Genetic Engineering and Federation Technology for Manipulation of fermenting organisms and development of suitable bioreactors with computer programming for selection of production parameters.

Molecular Biology for exploration of cell surface with the objectives of development of diagnostic kits, bioteaching and cell immobilization.

Eligibility: 60 % marks o equivalent CGPA in any one of the following course:

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For Anna University: B.Tech/BE in: Chemical Eng: Biochemical Eng: Industrial Biotechnology, Leather Technology; B.Pharma or M.Sc in Biotechnology, life Science, Botany/Zoology, Biochemistry, Micro -Biology, Genetics.

For Jadavpur University: B.Tech/B.E in: Chemical Engineering, Biochemical/ Engineering, Chemical Technology, Pharmaceutical Technology, Food Technology, Dairy Technology, B.Pharma or M.Sc in Life science, Botany/ Zoology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Genetics, Physiology, Pharmacology, Biophysics.

G.B. Plant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar;
The G.B Plant University of Agriculture and technology offers programmes in Biotechnology and successful candidates are awarded degree in M.Sc.(Ag) and M.V.S.C. (Molecular Biology and Biotechnology) .

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University; Offered M.V.S.C degree in Animal Biotechnology.

Eligibility: Bachelor's degree under the 10 +2+3 pattern of education in Agriculture, veterinary Sciences, Education in Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry from a recognized University.

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Other Postgraduates course in Bio-Technology

M.Sc Biotechnology

A.P.S Unversity:
Offers 2 - years (4 Semesters) M.Sc in Bio-Technology,

Eligibility: B.Sc (Bio)/ B.Sc (Ag) / M.B.B.S with 50 % marks (45 % SC/ST)

Aligarh Muslim University:

Offers 2 - years (4 Semesters) M.Sc in Bio-Technology,

Eligibility: Bachelor's Degree in Biological/Physical Science, Agri, Vety Science, or a Bachelor's degree in Engg. / Tech or MBBS with 55 % marks.

All India Institute of Medical Science:

Offers 2- year Master degree of Biotech

Eligibility: MBBS, BVSc/BSc (Hons) Human Biol/BSc (Hons) Zoology/Botany/Life Sc/Genetics or Microbiol with 60 % marks.

Amravati University
Faculty of Science, Tapovan Road, Camp Amravati -444602, Maharashtra.

Offers 2 years M.Sc Biotechnology.

Eligibility: B.Sc Exam

Andhra University

Offers 2 years M.Sc Biotechnology.

Eligibility: B.Sc exam

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Banaras Hindu University

Offers 2 years M.Sc Biotechnology.


Banasthall Vidyapeeth, PO Banasathali Vidyapith 304022

Eligibility: B.Sc (Physical/Biological/BE/MBBS/BVSc etc.


Birla Institute of Technology and Science

Offers M.Sc Tech.
Eligibility; 12 yr Sr.Secondary exam of CBSE or its equivalent with Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Adequate proficiency in Eng.

Centre of BioTechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Rd, and New Delhi 11067

Offers Two yrs M.Sc programme in Biotechnology.


College of Engineering, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management, Gandhi Nagar Campus, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam.

Offers Inter-disciplinary two year full time M.Sc in Biotechnology, Seats: 24.

Eligibility: B.Sc with any following subject:
Bio.Tech, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Environmental Science, Human Genertics, Fisheries, Aqua Culture and Mathemtics.


Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, 'Nalanda Parisar' 169 Ravindra Nath Tagore Marg, Indore- 452003 (M.P),

Eligibility: B.Sc with 45 %

Doctor Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Life Sciences, Gour Nagar, Sagar 470003 (M.P)

Eligibility; B.Sc

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M.VSc. Animal Biotechnology:

Offers M.VSc. Animal Biotechnology.
Eligibility: Bachelor's degree in Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Fisheries, Veterinary Sciences or Agricultural Engineering and (only B.VSc for Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai) with 70 % marks

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029 offers admission to the following courses of the Institute for the Indian Nationals:


M.Sc. & M.Biotechnology Course Entrance Exam. Is held during July in Delhi only.


M.Biotechnology.

Eligibility; M.Sc in Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biophysics and Physiology. With 60 % marks (55 % of SC/ST)

M.Sc in Pharmacology and M.Sc Drug Assay.(Pharmacology)

Eligibility: B.Sc (Hons) Human Biology, B.V.Sc, B.Pharmacy with at least 60 % marks.

M.Biotechnology

M.B.B.S, B.V.Sc, B.Sc (Hons) (Human Biology) with minimum 60 % marks

Last Date; May.

For more details prospectus & applications contact above address of AIIMS